[82], Large parts of the Euphrates basin were for the first time united under a single ruler during the Akkadian Empire (23352154 BC) and Ur III empires, which controlled either directly or indirectly through vassals large parts of modern-day Iraq and northeastern Syria. From there, it flows southeast through Syria and Iraq, eventually emptying into the Persian Gulf. It dates to the mid-3rd millennium BCE. [85] Following the end of the Middle Assyrian Empire in the late 11th century BCE, struggles broke out between Babylonia and Assyria over the control of the Iraqi Euphrates basin. [76] The Uruk period, roughly coinciding with the 4th millennium BCE, saw the emergence of truly urban settlements across Mesopotamia. However, things in the river are changing, and with it, questions are popping up all over. Apologetics, Bible studies, Current events. Blessedishe who watches, and keeps his garments,lest he walk naked and they see his shame. And they gathered them together to the place called in Hebrew,Armageddon. Syria's Lake Assad is the most important source of drinking water for the city of Aleppo, 75 kilometres (47mi) to the west of the river valley. 1) The prophecy was fulfilled by military action in 539 BC when the Persian king Cyrus conquered Babylon. It also allows large freight barges to navigate up to Baghdad. The deficit devastated the region, causing widespread famine and the displacement of thousands of people. Especially the flooding of Zeugma with its unique Roman mosaics by the reservoir of the Birecik Dam has generated much controversy in both the Turkish and international press. The rivers total length is approximately 2,800 kilometers (1,700 miles), and it has a drainage basin of about 360,000 square kilometers (140,000 square miles). Of course I know Jesus could come back any day he wants and we dont know it. Instead, much closer to the waters edge, al-Khamees and neighbours were busy planting corn and beans in the soil just last year submerged under the current. And his water was dried up, that the way of the kings of the rising of the sun might be prepared., Kings from the rising sun, those who come to him through the Euphrates, are the allies and collaborators of the Antichrist.. Some people however believe this army to be 200 million human men. And it is a prophecy of Jacob, that from Ian the Antichrist will come, as it has been mentioned several times. According to both Daoudy and Frenken, Turkey's share is 28 percent, Syria's is 17 percent and that of Iraq is 40 percent. Iraq's largest dam on the Euphrates is the Haditha Dam; a 9-kilometre-long (5.6mi) earth-fill dam creating Lake Qadisiyah. Now, in terms of a biblical response there are many places we can go to in scripture that speaks to our assurance of salvation. You dont have to respond again if you dont want to but, I guess Im scared because I feel like Im not ready, if that makes sense. The reduction in water flow began on January 27 and began with the end of winter and the minimization of rain and water inflow affecting the areas of Raqqa, Tabqa, Deir Ezzor and other areas of northeastern Syria. Your email address will not be published. The Euphrates River has played a crucial role in the development and growth of several ancient civilizations. Copyright 2010 - 2023 Soul:Ask | Unlock your Mind and Soul. [58] Although concerted efforts have been made to record or save as much of the endangered cultural heritage as possible, many sites are probably lost forever. Over 7 million people are affected by the river drying up. The 7 seal, 7 trumpet, and 7 bowl judgments all occur within the confines of the tribulation. [43] Completion of GAP was scheduled for 2010 but has been delayed because the World Bank has withheld funding due to the lack of an official agreement on water sharing between Turkey and the downstream states on the Euphrates and the Tigris. Do you not see that as the tribulation? In the north, the river served as a border between Greater Armenia (331 BC428 AD) and Lesser Armenia (the latter became a Roman province in the 1st century BC). Basic Bible Prophecy: Essential Facts Every Christian Should Know by Ron Rhodes. [72] Occupation of lower Mesopotamia started in the 6th millennium and is generally associated with the introduction of irrigation, as rainfall in this area is insufficient for dry agriculture. The Euphrates runs from Turkey to Syria and then to Iraq until it joins the Tigris in Shatt Al Arab in Iraq. Syrias longest river used to flow by his olive grove, but Khaled al-Khamees says it has now receded into the distance, parching his trees and leaving his family with hardly a drop to drink. And I saw three uncleanspirits like frogscomingout of the mouth ofthe dragon, out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth ofthe false prophet. The Euphrates, which is 2,800 kilometres long, flows from Turkey into Syria and Iraq. Behold, I am coming as a thief. More insights from your Bible study - Get Started with Logos Bible Software for Free! [90][92][95] In 2008, Turkey, Syria and Iraq instigated the Joint Trilateral Committee (JTC) on the management of the water in the TigrisEuphrates basin and on 3 September 2009 a further agreement was signed to this effect. Thank you for your question. The first time the Euphrates River was mentioned was cuneiform texts found in Shuruppak and pre-Sargonic Nippur. They will come from the parts of the East, that is, from the parts of Gog and Magog, as we will see about them later in Revelation. What this should show us instead is that when we consider this along with the many prophetic signs converging on our time, it acts as a marker of where we are prophetically which should strengthen our faith in Gods Word and excite us as our blessed hope draws near. Gary DeMar The latest in last days madness comes from, naturally, the Middle East. As per 1987 Protocol on Economic Cooperation between Syrian and Turkey, the annual 16 billion cubic meters of Euphrates River (500 m3/s) should to be released at the Syrian-Turkish border for five years. The Syrian government of Youssef Zain in 1968 built the Euphrates Dam without diverting the Euphrates River to the desert and establishing lakes there. The Euphrates, which is 2,800 kilometres long, flows from Turkey into Syria and Iraq. As drought grips the Mediterranean region, many in the Kurdish-held area are accusing neighbour and arch foe Turkey of weaponising water by tightening the tap upstream, though a Turkish source denied this. Israeli President Isaac Herzog Seeks to Revitalize Abraham Accords as Doubts Mount in Bahrain, https://himitsustudy.com/2020/02/23/study-of-revelation-the-sixth-trumpet/, https://himitsustudy.com/2020/05/11/study-of-revelation-the-sixth-trumpet-kings-of-the-east/, https://himitsustudy.com/2022/05/01/beyond-the-blessed-hope/. What were witnessing now, along with a plethora of other signs, is a shadow of whats to come during the tribulation. In times of rain, it gushes into northern Syria through the Turkish border and flows diagonally across the war-torn country towards Iraq. As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. The great river Euphrates will dry up because, as some say, the Antichrist will come from the east through the Euphrates, and from the tribe of Ian, one of the sons of the patriarch Jacob. Two dams in northern Syria face imminent closure which would leave about three million people without any access to electricity. The river joins the Tigris before it empties into the Persian Gulf. For they are spirits of demons,performing signs,whichgo out to the kingsof the earth and ofthe whole world, to gather them tothe battle of that great day of God Almighty. What Lives At The Bottom of The Mississippi River? It also wont be due to an intentional diminishing of water as some believe may be occurring currently (Lifegate). On which the various lives of the ancients depended heavily on this river. The Balikh receives most of its water from a karstic spring near 'Ayn al-'Arus and flows due south until it reaches the Euphrates at the city of Raqqa. Phil, if you read the preceding passages of Revelation, and you also read Matt 24 and Mark 13, you will find that the drying up of the Euphrates river by an angel happens AFTER the tribulation period, and happens instead during the Wrath of God which begins right after Jesus gathers His people from the Earth. pic.twitter.com/P2mI7deOOs Jamal Bal (@Jamal_Bali7) May 2, 2021, And the sixth (angel) poured out his vial upon the great river, the Euphrates.. Advertisement. Although God offers humanity the gift of eternal life through the shed blood of His son, its our choice to either reject this gift and pay for the penalty of our sin ourselves or accept it by placing our trust in the one whos already paid it all in full (Acts 16:30-31,Romans 6:23,Ephesians 2:8-9). 8 Bible Verses about River Euphrates Revelation 16:12 Verse Concepts The sixth angel poured out his bowl on the great river, the Euphrates; and its water was dried up, so that the way would be prepared for the kings from the east. Euphrates river - CC via https://web.archive.org/we, #_ #_#__ pic.twitter.com/mlk6xeybBP. Its been the main source of water for the region, and with it, growth and fertility are unlike anything theyd ever seen before. Now, The drying up of the Euphrates River is not just a prophecy, but it is actually happening today. Maranatha! The river is spelled similarly to Sippar, an ancient city located in modern-day Iraq. Although Revelation 16:12 does indeed talk about the drying up of the Euphrates it elaborates this to us in a specific context. Do the news reports of rivers turning blood red have anything to do with the end times. What leads you to believe that the 6th bowl judgment occurs after the tribulation? Although its not certain if the drying of this river symbolizes the end of the world, it is trouble for those that live near the river and rely on it for water and agriculture. Turkey and Syria completed their first dams on the Euphrates the Keban Dam and the Tabqa Dam, respectively within one year of each other and filling of the reservoirs commenced in 1975. The Ancient Greek form Euphrts (Ancient Greek: , as if from Greek "good" and "I announce or declare") was adapted from Old Persian Ufrtu,[2] itself from Elamite -ip-ra-tu-i. [27] Southeast of the border between Syria and Iraq starts true desert. 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. It provided fertile agricultural soil for the communities along the river. Some Kurdish-Syrian organisations have accused the Turkish government of exploiting water as a weapon of war, intentionally diminishing the flow into regions of Syria under Kurdish control. bobby. Here can also be found the wild variants of many cereals, including einkorn wheat, emmer, oat and rye. To say that would not only mean were currently in the tribulation, but that all of the seal, trumpet, and majority of bowl judgments have been poured out on mankind, and that 3 demonic spirits have gone out to the kingsof the earth and ofthe whole world to the battle of Armageddon in anticipation of Christs Second Coming (Revelation 16:13-14, 16). The seasonal variability has equally changed. The village was flooded about 5 meters, that meaning were about five meters underwater, but now as you see it like a desert. From the Syrian border to the. The Euphrates River is one of the two major rivers that make up the Tigris-Euphrates river system, the other being the Tigris River. [8] It emerges from the confluence of the Kara Su or Western Euphrates (450 kilometres (280mi)) and the Murat Su or Eastern Euphrates (650 kilometres (400mi)) 10 kilometres (6.2mi) upstream from the town of Keban in southeastern Turkey. Aside from Revelation 16, we also see the significance of the Euphrates river during the tribulation in Revelation 9 with the sixth trumpet judgment which I elaborate on in this article. There was a village on the shore of the lake and it was flooded every spring the level of the lake rose to 5 meters. Before the sixth bowl, the. Humanitarian organisationsfear an imminent catastrophe in northeastern Syria, where the Euphrates flow rate has been raising concerns since January. Annual evaporation from reservoirs has been estimated at 2 cubic kilometres (0.48cumi) in Turkey, 1 cubic kilometre (0.24cumi) in Syria and 5 cubic kilometres (1.2cumi) in Iraq. Although it's become close to drying up it's never fully dried up. Throughout history, the Euphrates River has experienced several episodes of severe drought. Yes, the Euphrates River has been temporarily dried up or reduced to low flow in the past, due to various reasons such as drought, human activities like dam building, or changes in water distribution by upstream countries. In fact, parts of it are completely dry. As a result, the river level has dropped by at least 5 meters for the first time in its history. [9] Estimates of the area of the Euphrates drainage basin vary widely; from a low 233,000 square kilometres (90,000sqmi) to a high 766,000 square kilometres (296,000sqmi). [64], In Islam, a hadith is mentioned prophecying about unearthing of a gold mountain beneath the Euphrates river before the apocalypse, with many people dying fighting over it; it is said to be one of the future minor signs of the coming of Judgement Day:[65][66]. Who is the two hundred million army in Revelation nineteen chapter, Hello Cleveland! Together with the Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia (lit. What they primarily point to to make this case is Revelation 16:12, a description of the sixth bowl judgment. pic.twitter.com/P2mI7deOOs Jamal Bal (@Jamal_Bali7) May 2, 2021, This road leads to my village west of #kobani, which was flooded in year 99 as a result of establishment of a lake on Euphrates river . This road leads to my village west of #kobani, which was flooded in year 99 as a result of establishment of a lake on Euphrates river . In times of rain, it gushes into northern Syria through the Turkish border and flows diagonally across the war-torn country towards Iraq. So most other translations (i.e. [12] Recent estimates put the basin area at 388,000 square kilometres (150,000sqmi),[9] 444,000 square kilometres (171,000sqmi)[10][23] and 579,314 square kilometres (223,674sqmi). In Iraq, they are battling the worst drought theyve ever seen. [10][11] Finally, some sources also include Jordan in the drainage basin of the Euphrates; a small part of the eastern desert (220 square kilometres (85sqmi)) drains toward the east rather than to the west. Yet he veers off the truth when he says that the Sixth Bowl Judgment is during the tribulation. It is NOT! Revelation 9:13-16 describes the release of four angels who are bound at the Euphrates River and the aftermath of their release: the slaying of a 1/3 of mankind by 200 million horsemen: " (13) And the sixth angel sounded, and I heard a voice from the four horns of the golden altar which is before God, (14) Saying to the sixth . I read Isaiah 11:11-16 several times but did not see a reference to the Euphrates river. In terms of length, drainage basin and discharge, the Khabur is the largest of these three. [94] Another bilateral agreement from 1989 between Syria and Iraq settles the amount of water flowing into Iraq at 60 percent of the amount that Syria receives from Turkey. Very good. Thank you for reading! Since we know from history that the Euphrates River flowed THROUGH the ancient city of Babylon, the "many waters" is another name for the Euphrates. Water was wealth. Its one judgment which sets up another judgment rendered by Christ in-person to overwhelmingly defeat these armies, known as the winepress of the wrath of God (Revelation 19:15, 17-21). I believe sometimes we may get a bit too excited in the bible prophecy community and misinterpret things. Introduction Every day, your skin is exposed to numerous environmental aggressors, such as pollution, UV rays, and stress, that can. All rights reserved. Often times people lump the the 6th trumpet judgment in Revelation 9:13-21 with the 6th bowl judgment in Revelation 16:12-16 and I just dont see the relation or the interpretational justification to do so. [24] The greater part of the Euphrates basin is located in Turkey, Syria, and Iraq. The Euphrates River Has Completely Dried Up In Iraq And SyriaThe drying up of Euphrates, Syrias longest river is raising concerns as the demise of the water body could lead to a humanitarian disaster in the country. Subscribe 459K views 3 months ago For the last 6,000 years, the Euphrates River has brought the areas of Turkey, Syria, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia unprecedented success. What is the Prophetic Significance of Digital Currency? [26], South of this zone lies a zone of mixed woodland-steppe vegetation. So first, we actually see mention of this army in Revelation 9 not 19. The combined GAP projects on the Turkish Euphrates have led to major international efforts to document the archaeological and cultural heritage of the endangered parts of the valley. The Neo-Assyrian Empire (935605 BC) eventually emerged victorious out of this conflict and also succeeded in gaining control of the northern Euphrates basin in the first half of the 1st millennium BCE. "Sahih Muslim 2894 c "[67], The early occupation of the Euphrates basin was limited to its upper reaches; that is, the area that is popularly known as the Fertile Crescent. Happy to see that you agree as well! The Euphrates softshell turtle is an endangered soft-shelled turtle that is limited to the TigrisEuphrates river system. [49] The flooding of Lake Assad led to the forced displacement of c. 4,000 families, who were resettled in other parts of northern Syria as part of a now abandoned plan to create an "Arab belt" along the borders with Turkey and Iraq. The most notable occurred in the 16th century when the river dried up completely for several years. Through his blog, he aspires to point skeptics of the bible to the truth of the Gospel using apologetics. Originating in Turkey, the Euphrates flows through Syria and Iraq to join the Tigris in the Shatt al-Arab, which empties into the Persian Gulf. WATCH: Sharks biting alligators, the most epic lion battles, and MUCH more. Learn more about us & read our affiliate disclosure. Some of the more common birds include: The Euphrates River has been drying up for years, but why? The Elamite, Akkadian, and possibly Sumerian forms are suggested to be from an unrecorded substrate language. There are no fast solutions to fill up the Euphrates River, especially with record low yearly rainfall. [68][69] In the Taurus Mountains and the upper part of the Syrian Euphrates valley, early permanent villages such as Abu Hureyra at first occupied by hunter-gatherers but later by some of the earliest farmers, Jerf el Ahmar, Mureybet and Neval ori became established from the eleventh millennium BCE onward. This situation threatens to hinder the functioning of two of the largest hydroelectric power plants in the region, located atTishrinandTabqa, drastically reducing the already-lacking supply of electricity andclean water. We live in exciting times as every day we get closer to Jesus return. Syria's longest river used to flow by his olive grove, but today Khaled al-Khamees says it has receded into the distance, parching his trees and leaving his family with hardly a drop to drink. With the construction of large hydropower stations, irrigation schemes, and pipelines capable of transporting water over large distances, many more people now depend on the river for basic amenities such as electricity and drinking water than in the past. These power stations provide energy to the homes of somethree millioncitizens. Im just doing my best to stay faithful to what the text says. It's fed by winter snow in the Alps and heavy rainfall in the spring, and has a steep fall that brings. The steady drop in annual rainfall from the sources of the Euphrates toward the Persian Gulf is a strong determinant for the vegetation that can be supported. Throughout history, this zone has been heavily overgrazed due to the practicing of sheep and goat pastoralism by its inhabitants. As the Lord said in the Gospels, Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom (Matt. [12] The length of the Shatt al-Arab, which connects the Euphrates and the Tigris with the Persian Gulf, is given by various sources as 145195 kilometres (90121mi). I graduated from college with an A.A, but I am still pursuing a Bachelors of Marketing degree. Typically, there is a higher water level during April to May since there is more rainfall and melting runoff. Boradpanda is a Professional Entertainment Platform. With the beginning of the spring of 2021 and the end of the flood season, reports began to come from all over the world about the disappearance or shallowing of small and large rivers. However, the rivers water levels have fluctuated significantly over time, and it has even dried up entirely in the past. Over the past ten days, Turkey reduced the water flow to Syria from 500 to 200 cubic meters per second, suspending electricity production at the Euphrates Dam and led to a decrease in the irrigation ad drinking water, besides a remarkable depletion of Lake Assad, SANA said. The following verses then detail to us the gathering of the kings of the whole earth to the battle of Armageddon (Revelation 16:13-16). In general, what kind of gold there is is not yet clear, but the fact that the Euphrates opened up, exposing the bottom in some places is already quite obvious. First, it takes place during the tribulation period and more specifically towards the end as its the second to last bowl judgment. . Thank you for reading through the article and leaving a message. His goal is to also inform others - both believer and non-believer - regarding the times we're living in preceding the Lord's soon return, through the study of prophecy. [71] Late Neolithic villages, characterized by the introduction of pottery in the early 7th millennium BCE, are known throughout this area. Outside the village of Rumayleh where al-Khamees lives, black irrigation hoses lay in dusty coils after the river receded so far it became too expensive to operate the water pumps. The Euphrates river is drying up, so much so that at its current pace, it will be a humanitarian crisis for those who rely on it as a water source in Syria. The river also significantly developed the Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian empires, which controlled the region between the 24th and 7th centuries BCE. [37][38] Syria also built three smaller dams on the Khabur and its tributaries. Its as if we were in the desert, said the 50-year-old farmer, standing on what last year was theEuphratesriverbed. [87] The Achaemenid Empire was in turn overrun by Alexander the Great, who defeated the last king Darius III and died in Babylon in 323 BCE.[88]. Get our Question of the Week delivered right to your inbox! Summer is ahead, so another couple of meters of shallowing is not a question, so we are waiting for the golden ridges to rise from the bottom. [10][11] The same figures are given by Isaev and Mikhailova. I would say that if you find yourself scared about the last days, ask yourself, what specifically about it are you scared about? But God, in His love has provided a way to escape His wrath through Christ (John 3:16-18,John 14:6). A question for you though would be what you mean by wrath of God period? [53] Water quality in the Iraqi Euphrates is low because irrigation water tapped in Turkey and Syria flows back into the river, together with dissolved fertilizer chemicals used on the fields. (Revelation 9:13-19). It is not possible to determine the exact number of times the Euphrates River has dried up as there is limited historical data. Does the Mark of the Beast Currently Exist? The drying up of the Euphrates River has been a topic of discussion among Biblical scholars for many years. [10][11] Isaev and Mikhailova estimate the percentages of the drainage basin lying within Turkey, Syria and Iraq at 33, 20 and 47 percent respectively. In the Christian bible, the Euphrates River is significant. And when I heard about the Euphrates river drying up I was scared. Is it possible to know when Jesus is coming back? In 2 Timothy 3:1-7 and Isaiah 5:20, we are told in the Last Days men would become wicked, and people would "call evil good, and good evil". What scripture elaborates to us is that this will be done via the means of a supernatural source the sixth bowl judgment poured out on the river by an angel, which is ultimately an expression of Gods wrath (Revelation 16:1, 5-7, 9-10). [9][15], The Euphrates receives most of its water in the form of rainfall and melting snow, resulting in peak volumes during the months April through May. This river is the longest in western Asia. We see these things today, but . What is the significance of the Euphrates River? What about Isaiah 11:15, a reference to the Lord drying up the Euphrates in that day (11:11)? Since the start of 2021,water levels have fallen by five metres. The Euphrates is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia. The largest canal in this network is the Main Outfall Drain or so-called "Third River;" constructed between 1953 and 1992. Many Tribulation events will happen before the fulfillment of the prophecy of the Euphrates River being dried up. Habuba Kabira on the Syrian Euphrates is a prominent example of a settlement that is interpreted as an Uruk colony. Scroll to continue reading. [74] In Iraq, sites like Eridu and Ur were already occupied during the Ubaid period. [98], During the Syrian civil war and the Iraqi Civil War, much of the Euphrates was controlled by the Islamic State from 2014 until 2017, when the terrorist group began losing land and was eventually defeated territorially in Syria at the Battle of Baghouz and in Iraq in the Western Iraq offensive respectively. I believe the 200 million army is a demonic army. In all of northeastern Syria,electrical production has already fallen by 70 per centcompared to last year, states Welat Darwish, the head of the energy authority. The minimum volume at Ht remained relatively unchanged, rising from 55 cubic metres (1,900cuft) per second before 1990 to 58 cubic metres (2,000cuft) per second afterward. I have accepted that Jesus died on the cross for our sins, but I feel like Im doubting myself whether or not I truly believe that. They frequently drink water from the Euphrates River. I understand what you mean Trent. On which the various lives of the ancients depended heavily on this river. Were thinking of leaving because theres no water left to drink or irrigate the trees.. This steppe is characterised by white wormwood (Artemisia herba-alba) and Amaranthaceae. Some believe it is symbolic of the end times, while others think it could simply be a natural phenomenon. 24: 7). Reference to that day typically refers to the last day, or days. Sadly, the Tigris, another biblical river, is also losing water and drying out. He died for our sins, was buried, and rose again on the 3rd day (1 Corinthians 15:1-5). The Euphrates River. Thank you so much Ayo. He will break it up into seven streams so that anyone can cross over in sandals. National Aquaculture Sector Overview Fact Sheets", "The Earliest Paleolithic Occupation in Syria", "Dcouvertes de Restes Humains dans les Niveaux Acheulens de Nadaouiyeh An Askar (El Kowm, Syrie Centrale)", "Protecting one of the best Roman Mosaic Collections in the World: Ownership and Protection in the Case of the Roman Mosaics from Zeugma, Turkey", "Early Urban Development in the Near East", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Euphrates&oldid=1141923272, This page was last edited on 27 February 2023, at 15:44.